EMI licensing in Latvia - YB Case 2024

EMI licensing in Latvia

EMI licensing in Latvia
Latvia has emerged as a pivotal jurisdiction for financial technology due to its stable economic conditions and advantageous regulatory framework. Within the evolving landscape of digital payment systems and the necessity for their meticulous regulation, acquiring an EMI license is essential for entities desiring to function within the EU, including Latvia's legal territory. Possessing the capability to issue and administer electronic finances enhances Latvia’s appeal to global fintech enterprises.

This discourse delves into the intricacies of procuring an EMI license in Latvia, encompassing all phases from preliminary prerequisites to comprehensive approval processes. It examines both the statutory basis and the operational steps involved, such as company formation and the compilation of the necessary documentation. Additionally, it addresses taxation considerations and the advantages that the authorization to manage digital currencies provides for accessing the European market. Emphasis is placed on stringent AML and KYC protocols, underscoring the rigor of Latvian regulators in upholding financial security.

The aim of this discourse is not merely to inform about the licensing procedures, but to furnish exhaustive guidance for fintech companies contemplating Latvia as a base for broadening their business ventures.

Fintech industry overview in Latvia

The fintech sector in Latvia is significant within the EU context, attributed to a high level of innovation, strategic geographic positioning, and governmental backing. Swift technological advancements and forward-looking regulatory frameworks foster a conducive environment for the proliferation of fintech firms, particularly those focused on electronic money solutions.

The EBRD reports a notable expansion in Latvia’s fintech sector, with new fintech startup registrations increasing by 20% annually from 2018 to 2022. Latvia boasts a substantial count of EMI licenses in Europe, signaling an accommodating milieu for digital currency transactions.

The Latvian government has intensified its support for the fintech industry by streamlining the licensing procedures for electronic payment systems and promoting investment incentives. The National Bank, tasked with the regulation and licensing of electronic money, ensures stringent standards of transparency and security in financial dealings.

The process for securing an electronic money license in Latvia adheres to rigorous regulations and standards that applicants must satisfy to gain approval. Essential criteria include sufficient authorized capital and the formulation and execution of robust risk management frameworks, along with measures to thwart money laundering and the funding of extremist activities.

Latvia offers a distinct competitive edge for fintech firms through its innovative digital infrastructure and access to top-tier information technology professionals. These elements foster an optimal setting for creativity and the advancement of sophisticated financial technologies. Consequently, Latvian fintech companies are well-positioned to compete effectively in the European marketplace by offering cutting-edge solutions for digital transactions.

Understanding the EMI license in the jurisdiction

In Latvia, the authorization to manage electronic currencies represents a formal license granted by regulatory bodies to financial institutions for conducting activities associated with the issuance and management of electronic financial assets. This license is crucial for lawful operations within the EU’s jurisdiction.

Administered by the Central Bank, the issuance of an EMI license in Latvia is regulated by both national laws and EU directives, including PSD2 and DCD. These regulations stipulate the criteria and standards for entities engaged in virtual currencies.

Acquiring an EMI license in Latvia not only consolidates a company’s legal footing in the European financial market but also authorizes it to:

  • Issue and oversee virtual currencies, which are funds stored digitally for diverse payment transactions via online or mobile platforms.
  • Provide money transfer services, encompassing payment transactions, currency exchanges, and the transfer of funds across accounts.
  • Expand operational activities, allowing enterprises to function across all European Union member states without the necessity of separate national permits.

For fintech firms aspiring to elevate their presence in the European market, obtaining the license to operate digital funds in Latvia is a crucial strategic initiative. This facilitates building trust with customers and partners and accessing a broad European user base. Licensed Latvian EMIs are capable of offering their services under competitive conditions, maintaining high standards of security and transparency in their operations.

Essential criteria for initiating the EMI licensing process in Latvia

To commence the licensing process for the authorization to manage electronic money in Latvia, entities must satisfy numerous stringent prerequisites mandated by Latvian regulatory authorities and EU rules. These prerequisites encompass the incorporation of a business, maintaining a minimum level of authorized capital, structuring the enterprise appropriately, and implementing robust measures for AML and KYC compliance.

Business formation
The initiation of the EMI licensing trajectory in Latvia necessitates the formal establishment of a business within the nation. Potential registrants may opt for a business format such as an LLC (SIA) or a JSC. This process involves selecting a distinctive business name, formulating a company charter, and registering a legal address. The registration must be executed through the State Register of Enterprises of Latvia, serving as the foundational step towards accreditation for engaging in virtual currency operations.
Organizational leadership structure
It is imperative that the organizational governance structure be explicitly delineated, inclusive of designating individuals who are accountable for their respective roles and equipped with the requisite qualifications and experience in the financial services sector. Critical leadership roles, including those of the chief compliance officer and financial crime expert, must be occupied by individuals who meet the professional standards required.
Adherence to KYC and AML protocols
Adhering to these regulations is critical for the successful acquisition and retention of a licensed EMI status in Latvia. The KYC process involves the verification of clients' identities, scrutinizing their personal information, and examining their financial activity histories. The AML framework compels organizations to implement measures aimed at thwarting the utilization of their services for money laundering and terrorist financing purposes.

Entities are required to devise and deploy effective systems for monitoring transactions, establish internal audit mechanisms, and ensure consistent training of personnel in AML and KYC principles. Robust policies in these domains facilitate the licensing process and enhance credibility with clients and regulatory bodies.

Phases of EMI licensing in Latvia

The authorization process for electronic payment system entities comprises multiple phases and demands thorough preparation by the applicant. Below is an elucidated step-by-step guide to this procedure:

Phase 1: Preliminary arrangements

The journey towards securing an EMI license commences with the establishment of a corporate entity in Latvia. This initial step involves setting up the organizational framework, selecting founders and management personnel, and registering a legal address within Latvia.

Phase 2: Compilation and submission of documentation

To proceed with the EMI licensing application, the entity must assemble and prepare a comprehensive dossier of documentation.



Business development plan

Includes analysis of the business model, services, target markets, marketing strategies, financial projections for three to five years, risk management, and data protection measures.

Proof of capital payment

Certificates and bank confirmations proving the payment of the required authorized capital.

Internal processes overview

Descriptions of AML and KYC strategies and policies.

Professional profiles of leadership and staff

Biographical data, qualifications, professional achievements, and copies of certificates for key team members.

Risk management strategy

Analysis of potential business risks and mitigation strategies.

Phase 3: Application submission to the Central Bank

Upon preparation of all necessary documents, the entity forwards these, along with the formal application, to the Central Bank. This institution oversees and regulates the operations of financial institutions within the country.

Phase 4: Document evaluation and potential revisions

The Central Bank of Latvia undertakes a meticulous examination of the submitted documents. This phase may necessitate additional information or clarifications. Discussions or interviews with principal company representatives might also be convened to delve into the business model or risk management approaches.

Phase 5: Resolution

Following the comprehensive review, the Central Bank of Latvia decides on the issuance of the EMI license. Should the decision be affirmative, the entity is then permitted to commence its business operations. Conversely, if the license is denied, the regulatory body provides reasons for the refusal, offering the entity an opportunity to amend the deficiencies and reapply.

It is imperative that all materials are exhaustive, precise, and adhere to regulatory standards. Incomplete or inaccurately prepared documents can impede the review process or result in the denial of EMI accreditation in Latvia.

Technological advancements and innovations in Latvian EMIs

Technological advancements are crucial to the progression and operation of EMIs in today’s digital era. These innovations enhance the quality of services offered and elevate the security, ease, and reach of financial transactions for consumers. Here, we explore the technological integrations that EMIs can adapt to refine their operations in Latvia.

Integration with global payment networks

A pivotal aspect of the success of EMIs in Latvia is their capability to integrate with global payment networks. This integration grants EMI clients the facility to execute international transactions, access cash via ATMs worldwide, and make payments both online and offline globally. The association with these renowned payment networks boosts consumer trust in EMIs, viewing them as dependable financial partners.

Provision of IBANs

Allocating IBANs to EMI clients enhances their capacity for global banking transactions. Benefits include:

  • IBANs facilitate EMI clients effortless sending and receiving of funds internationally, eliminating the need for intermediary banking services.
  • Utilizing IBANs can diminish the expenses associated with international transfers as transactions become more direct and economical.
  • IBAN accounts are regulated by stringent international standards for reporting and security, which significantly mitigates the risk of fraudulent activities and ensures elevated security levels for financial transactions.
Employment of cutting-edge technologies

In Latvia, EMIs have the opportunity to leverage various contemporary technological advancements to enhance their operations, including:

  • AI and ML are employed to monitor transactions continuously, detect and prevent fraudulent activity, and augment the customer experience through tailored financial advice.
  • Blockchain adoption enables the creation of secure and transparent payment systems that can considerably reduce transaction costs and durations and amplify their security.
  • The development of mobile applications and online platforms enhances the accessibility and user-friendliness of EMI services for end users.

The incorporation of these technologies not only augments the quality and accessibility of services provided by EMIs within the Latvian jurisdiction but also positions these institutions at the vanguard of financial technology innovation.

Advantages of applying for an EMI license in Latvia

Obtaining an EMI license in Latvia offers numerous advantages, presenting substantial opportunities for fintech enterprises aiming to expand their footprint in Europe and beyond.

  1. Securing an electronic money license in Latvia enables companies to access the internal market of the European Union, granting the liberty to offer and disseminate their services across all member states. The "passporting" principle, as established within European regulatory frameworks, ensures that a license approved in one member state is recognized across the EU. This obviates the necessity for separate national licenses in each country, significantly streamlining the expansion process and minimizing administrative expenditures.
  2. Latvia is emerging as a stable financial hub within Europe. The nation provides a backdrop of political and economic stability, crucial for attracting investors and financial institutions. The Latvian financial sector is regulated by the Central Bank of Latvia, which enforces stringent adherence to European norms and regulations. This regulatory environment fosters a stable commercial landscape and bolsters trust in the financial institutions of Latvia.
  3. Positioned at the crossroads of trade routes between Eastern and Western Europe, Latvia offers strategic advantages for business operations. It serves as an optimal location for firms looking to enhance their market presence within the European Union and to explore opportunities in Eastern Europe and the CIS. With its advanced transport and logistics infrastructure, Latvia also facilitates efficient cross-border transactions and provides rapid access to major European markets.

Tax advantages and financial incentives for entities with an EMI license in Latvia

The characteristics of the tax framework and their influence on operational efficacy and competitive positioning are pivotal in deciding on an expansion locale for businesses. Latvia is recognized for having one of the most favorable tax environments among European Union nations, rendering it an appealing option for fintech companies seeking an EMI license. Key aspects of the tax regime pertinent to fintech entities include:

  • CIT set at a moderate rate of 20%; this tax is levied on the net profits of the enterprise, aiding in the predictability and management of tax liabilities.
  • The standard VAT rate is 21%. Nonetheless, financial services, including some EMI-related activities, might qualify for VAT exemption, further reducing fiscal burdens.
  • Latvia offers a competitive dividend tax rate of 20%, with potential benefits and exceptions varying based on the ownership structure and tax residency.

Additionally, Latvia promotes tax incentives for research and development, which are particularly advantageous for fintech firms investing in innovation.

Influence of taxation on operational efficiency

The taxation strategy in Latvia significantly affects the operational efficiency and financial profitability of enterprises with an EMI license. Here are the principal ways in which taxation impacts business operations:

  • Strategic tax burden management: a consistent and moderate corporate tax rate allows for more precise financial planning, enhancing the stability and sustainability of the company's cash flows and reserves.
  • Enhancement of investment appeal: Latvia's competitive tax rates heighten its attractiveness to global investors, potentially facilitating the attraction of external capital and accelerating business expansion.
  • Reduction in overall operating expenses: the VAT exemption on financial services diminishes the total tax load on the company, enabling reductions in operational costs and an increase in profit margins.

The future of the fintech industry in Latvia is promising, bolstered by rapid technological advancements, enhanced regulatory frameworks, and substantial governmental support for innovation. An analysis of the financial sector's evolution allows for the anticipation of future legislative changes aimed at augmenting financial stability, ensuring transactional transparency, and safeguarding consumer data. These reforms will not only foster the growth of existing enterprises but will also draw new startups that view Latvia as a gateway to European markets.

In the realm of EMI licensing, the contributions of YB CASE are pivotal. YB CASE offers exhaustive services that facilitate the licensing process in Latvia or elsewhere. Our specialized knowledge of fintech regulations enables our clients to mitigate risks and expedite the licensing process while ensuring compliance with Latvian and European regulatory standards. Our commitment to professionalism ensures robust support throughout all phases, from the initial consultation through successful licensing and ongoing operational oversight.

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